Referenser och regelverk

    Innehållet är grundat på beprövad erfarenhet, lagar, regelverk, nationella riktlinjer och med stöd från relevanta vetenskapliga studier.  


    1. Subbe CP, Kruger M, Rutherford P, Gemmel L. Validation of a modified Early Warning Score in medical admissions. QJM. 2001;94(10):521-6.
    2. Smith GB, Prytherch DR, Schmidt P, Featherstone PI, Knight D, Clements G, et al. Hospital-wide physiological surveillance-a new approach to the early identification and management of the sick patient. Resuscitation. 2006;71(1):19-28.
    3. Gao H, McDonnell A, Harrison DA, Moore T, Adam S, Daly K, et al. Systematic review and evaluation of physiological track and trigger warning systems for identifying at-risk patients on the ward. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33(4):667-79.
    4. Groarke JD, Gallagher J, Stack J, Aftab A, Dwyer C, McGovern R, et al. Use of an admission early warning score to predict patient morbidity and mortality and treatment success. Emerg Med J. 2008;25(12):803-6.
    5. Jansen JO, Cuthbertson BH. Detecting critical illness outside the ICU: the role of track and trigger systems. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2010;16(3):184-90.
    6. Royal College of Physicians. National Early Warning Score (NEWS): Standardising the assessment of acute illness severity in the NHS. Report of a working party. London: 2012.
    7. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2: Standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. Updated report of a working party.. London: Royal College of Physicians; 2017.
    8. Smith GB, Prytherch DR, Meredith P, Schmidt PE, Featherstone PI. The ability of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to discriminate patients at risk of early cardiac arrest, unanticipated intensive care unit admission, and death. Resuscitation. 2013;84(4):465-70.
    9. Badriyah T, Briggs JS, Meredith P, Jarvis SW, Schmidt PE, Featherstone PI, et al. Decision-tree early warning score (DTEWS) validates the design of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). Resuscitation. 2014;85(3):413-23.
    10. Kovacs C, Jarvis SW, Prytherch DR, Meredith P, Schmidt PE, Briggs JS, et al. Comparison of the National Early Warning Score in non-elective medical and surgical patients. Br J Surg. 2016;103(10):1385-93.
    11. Spångfors M, Arvidsson L, Karlsson V, Samuelson K. The National Early Warning Score: Translation, testing and prediction in a Swedish setting. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2016;37:62-7.
    12. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, Annane D, Bauer M, et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016;315(8):801-10.
    13. Brink M, Cronqvist J, Fagerberg A, Lindgren P, Lipcsey M, Okas M, et al. New definition of and diagnostic criteria for sepsis - Swedish use of Sepsis-3. Läkartidningen. 2018;115:E3W9.
    14. Redfern OC, Smith GB, Prytherch DR, Meredith P, Inada-Kim M, Schmid PE. A Comparison of the Quick Sequential (Sepsis-Related) Organ Failure Assessment Score and the National Early Warning Score in Non-ICU Patients With/Without Infection. Critical Care Med. 2018;46(12):1923-1933.
    15. McGloin H, Adam SK, Singer M. Unexpected deaths and referrals to intensive care of patients on general wards. Are some cases potentially avoidable?. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1999;33(3):255-9.
    16. NCEPOD. An acute problem?. London: National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death; 2005.
    17. McQuillan P, Pilkington S, Allan A, Taylor B, Short A, Morgan G, et al. Confidential inquiry into quality of care before admission to intensive care. Bmj. 1998;316(7148):1853-8.
    18. Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, Levy MM, Antonelli M, Ferrer R, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016. Intensive Care Med. 2017;43(3):304-77.
    19. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, Light B, Parrillo JE, Sharma S, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(6):1589-96.
    20. Schein RM, Hazday N, Pena M, Ruben BH, Sprung CL. Clinical antecedents to in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Chest. 1990;98(6):1388-92.
    21. NCEPOD. Cardiac Arrest Procedures: Time to Intervene?. London: National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death; 2012.
    22. Bunkenborg G, Samuelson K, Poulsen I, Ladelund S, Akeson J. Lower incidence of unexpected in-hospital death after interprofessional implementation of a bedside track-and-trigger system. Resuscitation. 2014;85(3):424-30.
    23. Chen J, Ou L, Flabouris A, Hillman K, Bellomo R, Parr M. Impact of a standardized rapid response system on outcomes in a large healthcare jurisdiction. Resuscitation. 2016;107:47-56.
    24. Ludikhuize J, Brunsveld-Reinders AH, Dijkgraaf MG, Smorenburg SM, de Rooij SE, Adams R, et al. Outcomes Associated With the Nationwide Introduction of Rapid Response Systems in The Netherlands. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(12):2544-51.
    25. Maharaj R, Raffaele I, Wendon J. Rapid response systems: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2015;19:254.
    26. Thorén A, Jonsson M, Spångfors M, Joelsson-Alm E, Jakobsson A, Rawshani A, et al. Rapid response team activation prior to in-hospital cardiac arrest: Areas for improvements based on a national cohort study. Resuscitation. 2023;doi: 10.1016/:
    27. Andersen LW, Kim WY, Chase M, Berg KM, Mortensen SJ, Moskowitz A, et al. The prevalence and significance of abnormal vital signs prior to in-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2016;98:112-7.
    28. Smith GB, Prytherch DR, Jarvis S, Kovacs C, Meredith P, Schmidt PE, et al. A Comparison of the Ability of the Physiologic Components of Medical Emergency Team Criteria and the U.K. National Early Warning Score to Discriminate Patients at Risk of a Range of Adverse Clinical Outcomes. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(12):2171-81.
    29. Smith GB, Prytherch DR, Schmidt PE, Featherstone PI. Review and performance evaluation of aggregate weighted 'track and trigger' systems. Resuscitation. 2008;77(2):170-9.
    30. Prytherch DR, Smith GB, Schmidt PE, Featherstone PI. ViEWS--Towards a national early warning score for detecting adult inpatient deterioration. Resuscitation. 2010;81(8):932-7.
    31. Jarvis S, Kovacs C, Briggs J, Meredith P, Schmidt PE, Featherstone PI, et al. Aggregate National Early Warning Score (NEWS) values are more important than high scores for a single vital signs parameter for discriminating the risk of adverse outcomes. Resuscitation. 2015;87:75-80.
    32. Silcock DJ, Corfield AR, Gowens PA, Rooney KD. Validation of the National Early Warning Score in the prehospital setting. Resuscitation. 2015;89:31-5.
    33. Jo S, Yoon J, Lee JB, Jin Y, Jeong T, Park B. Predictive value of the National Early Warning Score-Lactate for mortality and the need for critical care among general emergency department patients. J Crit Care. 2016;36:60-68.
    34. Alam N, Vegting IL, Houben E, Van Berkel B, Vaughan L, Kramer MHH, et al. Exploring the performance of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) in a European emergency department. Resuscitation. 2015;90:111-5.
    35. Keep JW, Messmer AS, Sladden R, Burell N, Pinate R, Tunnicliff M, et al. National early warning score at Emergency Department triage may allow earlier identification of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: a retrospective observational study. Emerg Med J. 2016;33(1):37-41.
    36. Bilben B, Grandal L, Sovik S. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) as an emergency department predictor of disease severity and 90-day survival in the acutely dyspneic patient - a prospective observational study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2016;24:80.
    37. Eccles SR, Subbe C, Hancock D, Thomson N. CREWS: improving specificity whilst maintaining sensitivity of the National Early Warning Score in patients with chronic hypoxaemia. Resuscitation. 2014;85(1):109-11.
    38. Hodgson LE, Dimitrov BD, Congleton J, Venn R, Forni LG, Roderick PJ. A validation of the National Early Warning Score to predict outcome in patients with COPD exacerbation. Thorax. 2017;72(1):23-30.
    39. O'Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Earis J, Mak V. BTS guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings. Thorax. 2017;72(Suppl 1):ii1-ii90.
    40. Buist M, Bernard S, Nguyen TV, Moore G, Anderson J. Association between clinically abnormal observations and subsequent in-hospital mortality: a prospective study. Resuscitation. 2004;62(2):137-41.
    41. Goldhill DR, McNarry AF. Physiological abnormalities in early warning scores are related to mortality in adult inpatients. Br J Anaesth. 2004;92(6):882-4.
    42. Kause J, Smith G, Prytherch D, Parr M, Flabouris A, Hillman K. A comparison of antecedents to cardiac arrests, deaths and emergency intensive care admissions in Australia and New Zealand, and the United Kingdom--the ACADEMIA study. Resuscitation. 2004;62(3):275-82;62(3):275-82.
    43. Friman O, Bell M, Djärv T, Hvarfner A. Jäderling G. National Early Warning Score vs Rapid Response Team criteria-Prevalence, misclassification, and outcome. Acta anaesthesiol Scand; 2018 Aug 20.
    44. Nguyen OK, Makam AN, Clark C, Zhang S, Xie B, Velasco F, et al. Vital Signs Are Still Vital: Instability on Discharge and the Risk of Post-Discharge Adverse Outcomes. J Gen Intern Med. 2017;32(1):42-48.
    45. Thim T, Krarup NH, Grove EL, Rohde CV, Lofgren B. Initial assessment and treatment with the Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure (ABCDE) approach. Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:117-21.


    Till toppen av sidan