Referenser och regelverk

  1. Svensk Förening för Anestesi och Intensivvård (SFAI). Riktlinjer för postoperativ smärtbehandling: revidering oktober 2010.
  2. Lund, I., Lundeberg, T., Sandberg, L., Norrbrink Budh, C., Kowalski, J., Svensson E. Interchangeability between visual analogue and  verbal rating scales: a cross sectional description of pain etiology groupsInterchangeability between visual analogue and  verbal rating scales. BMC medical research Methodology. 2005;1186/1471:2288-5-31.
  3. Schiavenato M, Craig K. Pain assessment as a social transaction: beyond the "gold standard". Clin J Pain. 2010;26(8):667-76.
  4. Gaglise L, Weizblit N, Ellis W, Chan VW. The measurement of postoperative pain: a comparison of intensity scales in younger and older surgical patients. PAIN. 2005;117(3):412-20.
  5. Hjermstad M, Fayers P, Haugen D, Caraceni A, Hanks G, Loge J, et al. Studies comparing Numerical Rating Scales, Verbal Rating Scales, and Visual Analogue Scales for assessment of pain intensity in adults: a systematic literature review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005;41(6):1073-1093.
  6. Breivik H, Borchgrevink PC, Allen SM, Rosseland LA, Romundstad L, Hals EK, et al. Assessment of pain. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101(1):17-24.
  7. Abbey Pain Scale: för bedömning av smärta hos personer med demenssjukdom som har svårt att beskriva sin smärta i tal.. Svenska Palliativregistret;
  8. Nilsson S, Finnström B, Kokinsky E. The FLACC behavioral scale for procedural pain assessment in children aged 5-16 years. Paediatr Anaesth. 2008;18(8):767-74.
  9. Merkel S, Voepel-Lewis T, Shayevitz J, Malviya S. The FLACC: a behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children. Pediatric Nursing. 1997;23:293-297.
  10. Voepel-Lewis T, Zannotti J, Dammeyer J, Merkel S. Reliability and validity of the FLACC behavioral tool in assessing pain in critically ill adults and children. Am J Crit Care. 2010;19:55-62.
  11. Voepel-Lewis T, Merkel S, Tait AR, Trzcinka A, Malviya S. The reliability and validity of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability observational tool as a measure of pain in children with cognitive impairment. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2002;95:1224-1229.
  12. Voepel-Lewis T, Zannotti J, Dammeyer J, Merkel S. Reliability and validity of the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability behavioral tool in assessing acute pain in critically ill patients. Am J Crit Care. 2010;19(1):55-62.
  13. Herr K, Coyne P, McCaffery M, Manworren R, Merkel S. Pain assessment in the patient unable to self-report: position statement with clinical practice recommendations. Pain Manag Nurs. 2011;12(4):230-250.
  14. Herr K. Pain assessment strategies in older patients. J Pain. 2011;12(3):3-13.
  15. Hadjistavropoulos T, Herr K, Turk DC, Fine PG, Dworkin RH, Helme R, et al. An interdisciplinary expert consensus statement on assessment of pain in older persons. Clin J Pain. 2007;23(1 Suppl):S1-S43.
  16. Zwakhalen SM, Hamers JP, Abu-Saad HH, Berger MP. Pain in elderly people with severe dementia: A systematic review of behavioural pain assessment tools. BMC Geriatr. 2006;6:3.
  17. Akbarzadeh M, Jakobsson U. Smärtbedömning hos äldre personer med kommunikationssvårigheter - en utvärdering av den svenska versionen av Doloplus 2. Vård i Norden. 2007;27(4):26-31.
  18. Edberg UK, Söderqvist A. Validering av beteendeskalan. Ett instrument för smärtskattning av äldre individer inom akutsjukvården. Vård i Norden. 2012;106(32):14-17.
  19. Snow AL, Weber JB, O'Malley KJ, Cody M, Beck C, Bruera E, et al. NOPPAIN: a nursing assistant-administered pain assessment instrument for use in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2004;17(3):240-6.
  20. Riktlinjer för smärtbehandling. Stockholm: Smärtbehandlingsenheten, Astrid Lindgrens Barnsjukhus;
  21. Hicks CL, von Baeyer CL, Spafford PA, van Korlaar I, Goodenough B. The Faces Pain Scale-Revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. PAIN. 2001;93(2):173-183.
  22. Ramira M, Instone S, Clark M. Pediatric Pain Management: An Evidence-Based Approach. Pediatric Nursing. 2016;1(42):39-46.

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