Referenser och regelverk

    Innehållet är grundat på beprövad erfarenhet, lagar, regelverk, nationella riktlinjer och med stöd från relevanta vetenskapliga studier.  


    1. Rose C, Parker A, Jefferson B, Cartmell E. The Characterization of Feces and Urine: A Review of the Literature to Inform Advanced Treatment Technology. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol. 2015;45(17):1827-79.
    2. Karling P, Abrahamsson H, Dolk A, Hallbook O, Hellstrom PM, Knowles CH, et al. Function and dysfunction of the colon and anorectum in adults: working team report of the Swedish Motility Group (SMoG). Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44(6):646-60.
    3. Rao SS, Rattanakovit K, Patcharatrakul T. Diagnosis and management of chronic constipation in adults. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;13(5):295-305.
    4. Simren M, Palsson OS, Whithead WE. Update on Rome IV Criteria for Colorectal Disorders: Implications for Clinical Practice. Current Gastroenterology Report. 2017;19:15.
    5. Aziz I, Whitehead W, Palsson S, Törnblom H, Simrén M. An approach to the diagnosis and management of Rome IV functional disorders of chronic constipation. Expert Rev Gastro Hep. 2020;14(1):39-46.
    6. Lynch AC, Frizelle FA. Colorectal motility and defecation after spinal cord injury in humans. Prog Brain Res. 2006;152:335-43.
    7. Hsieh C. Treatment of constipation in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(11):2277-84.
    8. Rungsiprakarn P, Laopaiboon M, Sangkomkamhang US, Lumbiganon P, Pratt JJ. Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;9:Cd011448.
    9. Christodoulides, N et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: effect of fibre supplementation on chronic idiopathic constipation in adults. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016;44:103-116.
    10. Müller-Lissner SA, Kamm MA, Scarpignato C, Wald A. Myths and misconceptions about chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(1):232-42.
    11. Van der Schoot A, Drysdale C, Whelan K, Dimidi E. The effect of Fiber Supplementation on Chronic Constipation in Adults: An updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2022;116(4):953-969.
    12. Dukas, L., Willett, W. C. & Giovannucci, E. L.. Association between physical activity, fiber intake, and other lifestyle variables and constipation in a study of women. Am. J. Gastroenterol.. 2003;98:1790–1796.
    13. Gao, R., Tao, Y., Zhou, C., Li, J., Wang, X., Chen, L., Li, F. & Guo, L. Exercise therapy in patients with constipation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2019;54(2):169-177.
    14. Lämås K, Lindholm L, Stenlund H, Engström B, Jacobsson C. Effects of abdominal massage in management of constipation--a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2009;46(6):759-67.
    15. Koh CE, Young CJ, Young JM, Solomon MJ. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of biofeedback for pelvic floor dysfunction. British Journal of Surgery. 2008;95(9):1079-87.
    16. Rao SC, Yan Y, Erdogan A, Coss-Adame E, Patchratrakul T, Valestin J, Nag Ajala D. Barostat or syringe-associated sensory biofeedback training for constipation with rectal hyposensitivity: A randomized controlled trial. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2022;34(3):e14226.
    17. Christensen P, Krogh K. Transanal irrigation for disordered defecation: a systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2010;45(5):517-27.

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